氣候調適峰會 英國籌組新聯盟 美國重返對抗氣候變遷舞台

世界經濟論壇關係會議之一的「氣候調適峰會」(Climate Adaptation Summit)上月25、26日於線上舉行。此峰會聚焦於尋找調適氣候變遷的解決方案,包括如何因應更頻繁、破壞性更強的颶風和颱風、極端降雨、乾旱、高溫、野火、物種滅絕、冰川融化和海平面上升。

 

 

世界經濟論壇關係線上國際會議氣候調適峰會(Climate Adaptation Summit)於上月25、26日舉行。照片來源:CAS 2021

新國際聯盟將協助已開發、開發中國家 因應氣候變遷

英國首相強生(Boris Johnson)在會議上宣布組成一個新的國際聯盟,來協助已開發和開發中國家,因應全球氣候變遷的影響,分享地方、區域和全球解決方案相關知識和最佳作法,目前成員包括埃及、孟加拉、馬拉威、荷蘭、聖露西亞和聯合國。

英國環境局局長兼聯盟代表博伊德(Emma Howard Boyd)強調,城市如何投資因應氣候變遷的自然解決方案。

博伊德表示,峰會前一週英國各地發生嚴重洪水,而防洪措施保護了成千上萬居民免受破紀錄的河流水位影響。「我們知道,氣候危機帶來更多降雨,因此地方社區是因應的重要角色……投資防洪有助經濟發展,同時促進綠色和藍色生活空間、改善健康和福祉。」

「環境局、政府和地方合作夥伴有許多能與世界分享的專業知識,我們也有很要學習的地方。這次聯盟倡議的國際合作至關重要。」博伊德說。

世界第二大溫室氣體排放國——美國也在此次峰會重返氣候行動舞台。

美新任氣候大使:2050年淨零排放是調適最佳政策

1月20日,美國總統民主黨總統拜登在華盛頓特區就職。25日,新任氣候大使的美國前國務卿克里(John Kerry)首次以他的新角色致辭。

克里表示,氣候是拜登的首要任務之一,美國正在制定國家自主貢獻(Nationally Determined Contribution, NDC),將根據巴黎氣候協定送交聯合國,以減少至2030年的排放量。

在前任總統川普(Donald Trump)任職期間,美國對貧窮國家的氣候財政援助放緩,因為他拒絕繼續向全球綠色氣候基金(US Green Fund)支付美國承諾的款項。

克里說,從長遠來看,2050年前實現淨零排放並保持1.5°C的升溫極限,仍是氣候韌性和調適的最佳政策。

克里呼籲各國透過減少溫室氣體排放,將氣候危機視為緊急狀態,並警告因應氣候變遷的成本正在上升,美國一年因為三場風暴,合計花費超過2650億美元。「我們已經認清一個事實,那就是投資於預防或將損害最小化的成本比事後清理更便宜。」

 

 

克里呼籲各國透過減少溫室氣體排放,將氣候危機視為緊急狀態。照片來源:CAS 2021

中國國務院:2035年氣候調適目標擬定中

中國國務院副總理韓正,於北京透過視訊在氣候調適峰會上致辭,呼籲所有國家共同努力,加強氣候調適行動,為全球氣候治理取得新進展而努力。

他說,中國同樣重視緩解和調適,並正在制定2035年調適氣候變遷的國家戰略,這將使中國對氣候風險具有更大的調適力。

在星期一的開幕式上,法國總統馬克宏重申將投資20億歐元於氣候調適工作,佔法國氣候融資援助的1/3。 德國總理梅克爾(Angela Merkel)承諾加碼2.7億歐元於調適氣候變遷。

World Leaders Reach for Climate Adaptation Strategies
THE HAGUE, The Netherlands, January 26, 2021 (ENS)

As Earth’s climate heats up, a new international coalition is forming to tackle the impacts of global climate change, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced Monday. Johnson was speaking at the virtual Netherlands-hosted Climate Adaptation Summit <www.cas2021.com>- the first global summit focused solely on adaptation and resilience.

The Climate Adaptation Summit, linked with the annual World Economic Forum that opened in Davos, Switzerland on Monday, concentrated on finding solutions to adapt to the effects of climate change, such as more frequent and damaging hurricanes and typhoons, extreme rainfall, drought, heat, wildfires, extinctions, melting glaciers and rising sea levels.

Addressing world leaders, Prime Minister Johnson launched the Adaptation Action Coalition, developed by the UK in partnership with Egypt, Bangladesh, Malawi, the Netherlands, Saint Lucia and the United Nations.

The new coalition intends to help developed and developing countries alike share their knowledge and best practices on local, regional and global solutions for dealing with climate change.

Emma Howard Boyd, who chairs the UK’s Environment Agency and serves as UK Commissioner to the Global Commission, focused on ways that cities can invest in nature-based solutions to tackle the impact of climate change.

“Today’s summit follows significant flooding across the country last week. We know that the climate emergency is bringing more intense rainfall events, which is why local communities are vital in the response,” she said.

“Last week, flood defences protected tens of thousands of people in England from record river levels during Storm Christoph. Investments in flood protections help economic development and also improve health and wellbeing by enhancing green and blue spaces,” said Boyd.

“The Environment Agency, government and local partners have a lot of expertise to share with the world, and we also have a lot to learn. International collaboration, as championed by this coalition, is vital,” Boyd maintained.

The opening session of the Climate Adaptation Summit featured the return of the United States, the world’s second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases, to the climate action arena.

U.S. President Joe Biden, a Democrat, took office in Washington, DC on January 20; on Monday his Envoy for Climate, former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, made his debut address in his new role.

Speaking by video link at the first global summit on climate adaptation, Kerry said, “We’re proud to be back. We come back with humility for the absence of the last four years, and we’ll do everything in our power to make up for it,” he told the world leaders.

Kerry said the climate is a top priority for President Biden. “We have a president now, thank God, who leads and tells the truth … and he knows that we have to mobilize in unprecedented ways to meet this challenge that is fast accelerating, and we have limited time to get it under control,” he said.

The United States is working on a national plan, known as a Nationally Determined Contribution, to be submitted to the United Nations under the Paris Agreement on Climate, for emissions reductions to 2030. That would be published “as soon as practicable,” Kerry promised.

Financial help from the United States to poorer countries struggling with the impacts of climate-related disasters slowed to a trickle during Republican President Donald Trump’s term in office, as he declined to keep up U.S. payments into the global Green Climate Fund.

In the long term, driving towards net zero emissions no later than 2050 and keeping a 1.5°C warming limit within reach remain the best policies for climate resilience and adaptation. Kerry explained.

Kerry called on countries to “treat the crisis as the emergency that it is” by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and warned that the costs of coping with the climate change are escalating, with the United States spending more than $265 billion (£194bn) in one year after three storms. “We’ve reached a point where it is an absolute fact that it’s cheaper to invest in preventing damage or minimizing it at least than cleaning up.”

Addressing the Climate Adaptation Summit via video link from Beijing, Chinese Vice Premier Han Zheng Monday called for all countries to make joint efforts to enhance climate adaptation action and work for new progress in global climate governance.

Han said that climate change is the common challenge facing humanity, and its response requires accommodating both mitigation and adaptation.

China has attached equal importance to mitigation and adaptation, he said, adding that China is formulating a national strategy of adapting to climate change for 2035 and would make the country more resilient to climate risks.

At the opening session Monday, world leaders heard from German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron. President Macron reaffirmed that €2 billion (US$2.43 billion), one-third of France’s climate finance aid, will be invested in climate adaptation. German Chancellor Angela Merkel committed an extra €270 million for adaptation.

文章原網址:https://e-info.org.tw/node/229355 

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